5 Iconic Cosmetics

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Topics in this Podcast: Beauty

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, cosmetics
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1953 Kaiser "Hardtop" Dragon

No Dragons were built for 1952, but the following year the luxury 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon appeared, with a unique interior by designer Carleton Spencer, now a separate model. It featured 14-carat gold-plated hood ornament, exterior emblem, fender script, and glovebox nameplate.
Cars of the 1950s Image Gallery

Production of the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon: 1,277 Specifications of the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon: Wheelbase, inches: 118.5 Length, inches: 211.1 Weight, pounds: 3,320 Price, new: $3,924 (U.S.) Engines for the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon:

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How Land Trusts Work

From the moment Walt Disney opened his Disneyland resort in Anaheim, Calif., in July 1955 it was a soaring success. By the 1960s, Disney was looking for a second location to build an even more ambitious theme park that would draw visitors from the length of the populous East Coast. On an airplane tour over Central Florida, Disney set his sights on 27,000 acres (11,000 hectares) of swampland near the sleepy town of Orlando.
In 1965, real estate in this waterlogged stretch of Florida was selling for $180 an acre, roughly $1,300 in 2013 dollars [source: History]. But imagine how much that price would have spiked if Walt Disney, one of the wealthiest and most successful men in the world at the time, came knocking at the door. To avoid a speculative boom in real estate prices, Disney decided to hide his identity by purchasing the land through several trusts.
A land trust is a private legal contract in which the owner of real estate transfers the title of the property to a trustee. The property owner retains all rights to the property ¡ª to build, rent, sell or transfer to heirs ¡ª but has the luxury of remaining anonymous. In Disney’s case, the Florida swampland that would become the multibillion-dollar empire of Walt Disney World was purchased by nameless, faceless trusts [source: Disney Park History].
Land trusts of this type are called “Illinois Land Trusts,” because the first such contracts were drawn up by railroad tycoons, businessmen and politicians in 19th-century Chicago. Some of the early beneficiaries were people wanting to buy up Chicago real estate without jeopardizing their political posts as city aldermen, since they were not allowed to vote on city building projects if they owned any nearby lands [source: Exeter]

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These anonymous land trusts met opposition, but were eventually upheld by the Illinois State Supreme Court. In addition to Illinois, only eight other U.S. states ¡ª Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, North Dakota, Virginia, Arizona

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, California and Ohio ¡ª have legalized this kind of anonymous real estate land trust, whether through legislative statutes or court decisions [source: Murray].
So, how do you create a land trust?
Here are some tips to help you with generating income and planning for the future.
Presented by United Way of Greater Atlanta Powered by SunTrust Foundation

1956-1966 Ferrari Superamerica and Superfast

The 1956-1966 Ferrari Superamerica and Superfast have been referred to as “the ultimate street Ferraris” by automotive historian Richard M. Langworth, who described them as “monstrously powerful and blindingly fast.” These legendary cars are highly prized today.
The final model of the series, the 500 Superfast, has been called the “Ferrari ‘Royale’ ” by Ferrari expert and author Antoine Prunet, who is of course referring to the huge and grand Bugatti Royale.
These large and luxurious (at least by Ferrari standards) Ferraris became legendary in their own time, but it’s doubtful that Enzo Ferrari would have built them had certain circumstances not come together, among them a perceived need for a Ferrari for American driving conditions and a desire to expand the line.
Most car companies — even the builders of limited-production high-performance cars — broaden their model bases when possible to cover as much of the market as considered desirable by management. Different philosophies emerge, with some companies seeming to think in broader terms than others. Consider the fairly wide views of Porsche, BMW, and Mercedes-Benz compared to the narrower approaches of Aston Martin and Lamborghini.
Considering its size, Ferrari built an amazing variety of model types in the early 1950s, with engines that ranged in size and configuration from a 4.5-liter V-12 to a 2.0-liter four. It offered a number of cars with Gioacchino Colombo-designed V-12 engines — the 2.0-liter 166, the 2.3-liter 195, the 2

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.6-liter 212, and the 3.0-liter 250.
Aurelio Lampredi-designed V-12s powered the 250, the 4.0 Miter 340, the 4.1-liter 342 (25 cc more displacement than the 340), and the 4.5-liter 375. Concurrently, Lampredi-designed engines could be found in the 500 (2.0-liter four), the 625 (2.5-liter four), the 750 (3.0-liter four), the 860 (3.5-liter four), the 118 (3.75-liter six), and the 121 (4.4-liter six).
The majority of Ferrari’s cars in the early 1950s were competition machines, but Luigi Chinetti, Ferrari distributor for the United States, had been trying to convince Enzo Ferrari to build a road car with a bigger engine — one that would appeal to American buyers.
In those days, drivers of Chrysler hemis and Oldsmobile 88 Rockets reigned as kings of the American road, at least in standing start acceleration and in speed (over a straight road). Chinetti argued forcibly that while an MG owner might brag about handling, an easy-shifting four-speed manual transmission, and good brakes, someone who had just paid the far side of $12,000 for his sleek Italian steed couldn’t use that sort of rationalization after an American “barge” had just left him standing at a stop light.
To see how these discussions resulted in changes for the 1956 Ferrari, continue to the next page.
For more information on cars, see:

Start Your Engines! ‘The Fast and the Furious’ Quiz

With its high-speed races, spectacular driving feats and tricked-out cars

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How Rearview Cameras Work

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1957-1959 Ford Fairlane 500 Skyliner

What was perhaps a novelty at purchase time is now a familiar feature, of no more interest than the remote-locking buttons on today’s keyfobs. How times have changed.
The Eisenhowers, and all the other good American citizens who flocked to Ford showrooms back in 1957, can be forgiven for thinking Ford had invented something new and startling. In fact, the original retractable went on sale in France some 23 years earlier.
The 1934 Peugeot 601 series debuted a car with a power-operated retractable metal top, conceived by Georges Paulin. The idea was continued the next year in the new Peugeot 402, a line of streamlined cars in the Chrysler Airflow mold that included the Eclipse, a three-passenger coupe with a steel top that disappeared into a rear-hinged trunk compartment.
When the Eclipse was enlarged into a six-passenger car in 1937, powered top operation was dropped to keep costs down, but the manual mechanism was so well-balanced and easy to use that it was perfectly acceptable to most customers.
The Eclipse and its 402-series stablemates were victims of World War II; production ended after a mere five years. Another retractable, Chrysler’s 1941 Thunderbolt, never got past the show-car stage. A few further attempts by smaller manufacturers fared no better.
In an era of flamboyant styling and “gee-whiz” engineering features, Ford may have put the “topper” on the period when it introduced the Skyliner retractable hardtop in 1957. Practicality be damned; this one was for stopping the neighbors in their tracks.
Even though the public didn’t seem to be clamoring for cars that combined the attributes of hardtops and convertibles, the idea began to reassert itself in the early 1950s in the mind of Gil Spear, head of Ford’s Advanced Design studio.
Spear built a scale model of his concept, which caught the eye of styling executive Gene Bordinat. After word of Spear’s model — dubbed the Syrtis with “Roof-O-Matic” — reached higher-ups, the company approved more than $2 million to further develop the idea. Work got under way in 1953.

Those were heady days at Ford. The company had shaken off the stagnation of Old Henry’s day and, under his grandson, Henry II

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, was home to some ambitious projects. One was the two-seat Thunderbird “personal car.” Another was the revival of one of the late Edsel Ford’s favorite cars, the Continental.
The original Lincoln Continental, built in limited numbers between 1940 and 1948, had already achieved classic status in the minds of many enthusiasts, so a “Mark II” version seemed a natural “halo” car for Ford. And what would be a better companion for the upcoming luxury hardtop coupe than a retractable-top version?
Learn how the retractable top went from concept to reality on the next page.
For more information on cars, see:

The Top 10 Questions of 2008

?Some years stand out in our minds, stamped into our memories by the dramatic events that unfolded during those 365 days. Maybe for you it’s 1929, the year of the momentous stock market crash that kicked off the Great Depression. Or 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first person to set foot on the moon. Or 1989

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, when the Berlin Wall finally came tumbling down.
The year 2008 may wind up burning just as brightly in our collective consciousness. We saw the United States elect Barack Obama, the country’s first black president. We witnessed the complete unraveling of the global financial markets

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, and we watched food prices climb so high that eating three meals a day became a luxury that many of us couldn’t afford. It was also the year in which words like “grassoline” seeped into the public lexicon and in which Google continued its bid for general world domination.
At HowStuffWorks, we’re never content to watch history happen. We’re bent on poking around for the reasons behind these big events. So stick with us as we answer the top 10 questions of 2008, and we’ll satisfy our curiosity together.
First up, vaccines and autism.

1961 Ford Galaxie Sunliner

Clean, simple, and refreshingly gimmick-free, Ford’s big ones — like the 1961 Ford Galaxie Sunliner — were among the most pleasing of 1961 cars. They took a while to be fully appreciated, however — even the sun-loving ragtop.

Still part of the top-line Galaxie series, the ’61 Sunliner started at $2849. As in earlier years it had a standard V-8, now a 175-horsepower 292. Options included the veteran 352 with 220 bhp (shown here), plus a new 390 big-block with 300 bhp

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. Ford also sold a few triple two-barrel 390s with 375 or an amazing 401 bhp to leadfoots with big wallets and racing licenses. A dealer-installed four-on-the-floor manual trans-mission was new, too, but most big Fords had either two-speed Fordomatic or three-speed Cruise-O-Matic self-shifters.
Though total Ford sales fell slightly for ’61, the Sunliner virtually repeated its 1960 performance, attracting 44,614 orders

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1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25

The 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25 was the second-generation “small” Rolls-Royce — the direct replacement for the original “20.” Unlike the Phantom I, there was no Springfield equivalent built in the U.S

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As with all such prewar Rolls-Royces, it was offered only as a rolling chassis for coachbuilt bodywork, so a huge variety of styles still exists

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. Beautifully and carefully crafted, the 20/25 was surprisingly slow, even for the period — about 70 mph tops.
A synchromesh gearbox was added for 1932, and a complete centralized chassis lubrication for 1934. This Rolls-Royce was the British at their best, so no excuse needed to buy one.
Pluses of the 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25:
Minuses of the 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25:
Production of the 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25: 3,827
Specifications of the 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25: Wheelbase, inches: 129.0 Length, inches: average 180.0 Weight, pounds: approx. 3,800 Price, new: NA

Engines for the 1930-1936 Rolls-Royce 20/25:

* Not officially quoted Want more information about classic cars? See: