1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere

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The 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere was the completely redesigned standard Lincoln. Again, it was priced higher than the Capri, but less than the new companion Continental Marks Ill, IV, and V of these years.
It was about six inches longer and several hundred pounds heavier, which made the new 430-cid big-block “MEL” V-8 a must. Output was progressively reduced, however, in the quest for whatever mileage improvement was possible in these giants. Styling was marked by quad headlights in slanted recesses flanking an enormous grille and huge bumpers front and rear. Convertibles were sent over to the new Continental Mark III companion line

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, which shared the standard Lincoln’s unit body/chassis construction and basic appearance.
A minor facelift was ordained for ’59, and a more thorough redo — including a reworked greenhouse — was accomplished for ’60. Collector opinion is very divided on these cars. Some find them hideous, overly complex, and wallowy, while others think they’re just the thing for long-haul cruising in ’50s-style comfort.
Low sales and less of the “more is better” attitude generally in Detroit led to an all-new downsized Lincoln line for ’61.
Pluses of the 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere:
Minuses of the 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere:
Production of the 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere:
Specifications of the 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere: Wheelbase, inches: 131.0 Length, inches: 229.0 (1958), 227.2 (1959-1960) Weight, pounds: 4,798-5,064Price, new: $5,318-$5,945
Engines for the 1958-1960 Lincoln Premiere:

Pompeii: Lost and Found

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Karl Briullov, The Last Day of Pompeii
Announcer: Welcome to Stuff You Missed in History Class, from HowStuffWorks.com.
Katie: Hello and welcome to the podcast. I’m Katie Lambert.
Sara: And I’m Sara Dowdy.
Katie: And Atlanta has been besieged by rain for what feels like something around 45 days, but it’s really only been two weeks.Sara:
Two weeks is long enough for meKatie: And everything is flooding. But you know what’s worse than flooding Sara?
Sara: I think I have an idea.
Katie: Being rained on with volcanic ash, which is what, happened to Pompeii in A.D. 79. Pompeii was founded by the Oscans in the sixth or seventh century B.C., we’re really not sure. It was near Naples in the region of Campania. It was very fertile. Lots of olives and grain and sheep! Sara and I are very fond of sheep.
Sara: We like sheep.
Katie: And it was Greek for awhile, but the Rome took over in about 290 B.C., and they rebelled in 90 BS but Sulla beat them and they became part of the Roman Empire.
Sara: But by 79 A.D. Pompeii is this bustling cosmopolitan port city. It has extremely fertile soil, which unfortunately is because its built under a freaking volcano. But it’s good for agriculture while it lasts, ya know? They have an aqueduct that supplies fountains in the city and homes, the wool industry because of the sheep. Everything’s going really nice. They have vineyards. I like this not a lot. Plenty of the elder said that Pompeian wine gives you a really bad hangover.
Katie: So none of that for us.
Sara: So take it easy on the Pompeian wine. But there start to be some warning signs around this time that Mt. Vesuvius is starting to be active again. There’s a huge earthquake 17 years earlier, and actually at the time of the volcano explosion, the town hasn’t even quite recovered from this earthquake.
Katie: No, they’re still rebuilding.
Sara: And in the year of the volcano, there’s a small earthquake and the wells go dry. And the animals are reported to be acting strangely.
Katie: And the people notice strange waves in the ocean that they’re not used to seeing. So there’s an undercurrent of something that’s not quite right going on.
Sara: So this brings us to August 24th in the year 79, which is the year everything starts to go down. And we know a lot about what happened on the day of the explosion because of an account written by Pliny the younger to his friend some years afterward. He wrote that he saw “a cloud of unusual size and appearance, which reminded him of a pine tree for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk, and then split off into branches.” And what he was describing actually is later termed a Plinian Eruption, which is a huge column of gas and ash that’s shot up into the stratosphere by an enormous volcano eruption, such as this one with Mt. Vesuvius.
Katie: So August 24th, a column of smoke appears above the mountain, and people are uneasy because ash and pumice starts falling on Pompeii. And a bunch of people get the hell out of town.
Sara: 80 percent of the people try to make it. That’s not to say all of them survive, but the people who are taking this as a bad sign, ash and pumice falling, leave.
Katie: The column grows to 18 miles high and blocks out the sun. And there are neighboring cities around here too that are noticing, and it’s not just Pompeii, even though that’s what you usually hear about. You’ve also got Herculaneum, and – what are the others?
Sara: I don’t know if I’m pronouncing this one right, Stabae and Torea and Anciada, among other little tiny towns. So there’s a lot going on in this immediate area.
Katie: So the ash and pumice are still falling, and they’re falling deeper. People are watching this column grow, and more people start grabbing their jewelry and their belongings and trying to flee the city, but at this point, it’s too late.
Sara: Yeah, because by nightfall, the shower of ash and pumice has gotten denser and deadlier and it covers the city nine feet deep, which collapses roofs and some of the bodies later discovered are found sheltering under a stairwell that’s collapsed on them. So a lot of people are dying in their homes by now, or if they’re out in the street, dying just suffocated by the ash or burned by it.
Katie: You can imagine it would be hard to breathe in a bunch of ash and pumice.
Sara: But then the worst part is still yet to come on the morning of the 25th.
Katie: Which is when the column collapses and a surge of incredibly hot gas and rocks hits Herculaneum first. People are killed instantly from the thermal shock. It’s 1,000 degree heat. It melts the skin and the muscles from their bodies and it’s just skeletons left. They didn’t even have time to react. There are no facial expressions or anything. Everybody’s just buried.
Sara: Yeah, an earlier eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in Avelino, about 2,000 years before this one, had winds at 900 Fahrenheit and at 240 miles per hour of this suffocating ash. It makes your brain boil and your flesh is vaporized and your blood is vaporized and they meld with this volcanic ash to make a concrete or plaster like coating on your bones.
Katie: The ground water in Herculaneum helped too, that’s why some of it was preserved. And this was just the first surge. There were multiple surges to follow. Herculaneum ends up being buried in 75 feet of volcanic debris. Herculaneum is completely buried, but Pompeii is not. There are still surges left to hit it, and lapuli and ash are still falling and burning Pompeian’s in their home. A lot of them are suffocating because no one can breathe anymore.
Sara: The first surge to hit Pompeii basically kills anyone who’s left in the city, but it’s followed by these subsequent surges that continue to coat the city, but everyone is dead by then.
Katie: And even some people who managed to get outside the city walls were hit by the pyroclastic surge. It’s the volcano’s first surge, but it’s the first one to hit Pompeii which is the next morning. This whole thing lasted 19 hours.
Sara: So at the end of it all, Pompeii is buried under pumice stones and ash 19 to 23 feet, which is bad for trying to rebuild the city. Emperor Titus declared it an emergency zone and offered funds. It’s all very modern sounding. Offered funds to help with cleanup and recovery, but there’s not anything you can really do about a city buried under 23 feet of ash. So it’s quickly forgotten.
Katie: And lost.
Sara: That fertile soil covers it and people start farming eventually, and no one really thinks about Pompeii. It disappears from the map.
Katie: For about 1700 years, until the late 16th century when an architect named Domenico Fontana discovers some of the ruins.
Sara: And work at these archeological sites at Pompeii and Herculaneum actually ends up being sort of the start of modern archeology and some of the techniques we think about of modern archeologists with the grid system and the little tools, and methodically charting and removing artifacts. It didn’t necessarily always go like that. In fact, the early digging was pretty haphazard, and it wasn’t until the 1860s when an Italian archeologist named Giuseppe Firoelli became the director and really kind of tightened up the operation.
Katie: Before that people had just been taking things, like taking artwork and cutting off frescos and then framing it and sticking it in their living room, like, “Hey, look what I got from Pompeii.”
Sara: The Queen of Naples helped sponsor the digs because she wanted some nice ancient statuary for her home. So it was just kind of free cool ancient stuff for the picking. Really intense excavation resumed after World War II, and by 1997 it was declared a World Heritage site.
Katie: And there’s actually still lots of Pompeii that hasn’t been uncovered. Some of it they want to stay covered in general, but they did find lots of cool stuff when they were looking.
Sara: And they want some of it to stay covered because once it’s exposed, obviously its exposed to all of the things it’s been protected from for years, whether that’s rain or other weather or just tourists walking around.
Katie: And touching things. So remember if you go, that Pompeii is an open air museum, and please stop touching everything.
Sara: So what are some of the cool things they found in Pompeii?
Katie: Well, the coolest thing that we were talking about earlier was the private homes, because a lot of times when a civilization falls or is destroyed, what you’ll find are the giant monuments. And they did find some of that in Pompeii.
Sara: Yeah, there are plenty of temples and sports fields, amphitheaters, government buildings.
Katie: Public baths.
Sara: Things you would even find in modern cities because they’re what make it 2,000 years, they’re what people try to preserve and keep up. But private homes, usually you don’t find a 2,000 year old house.
Katie: No. Sara and I were talking about if something happened to Atlanta what they would call our houses, because a lot of these are very descriptive names, like the House of the Golden Bracelet, based on –
Sara: The House of the Silver Wedding.
Katie: What’s found in mine would be the Apartment of Cat Hair.
Sara: Mine was unfortunately the House of the Ceiling Mushroom, also due to the rain. So hopefully a volcano doesn’t preserve this moment in time.
Katie: But the houses in Pompeii were lovely, especially if you were wealthy, because they had these huge private gardens and courtyards. Really elaborate frescos, some of which were very erotic, which the King of Naples was not happy about. He had them hidden for years and years.
Sara: Yeah, the patron deity of Pompeii was Venus, so it’s not too surprising that there were all these suggestive –
Katie: Very fallocentric art.
Sara: But we get a really great record of several centuries worth of domestic architecture from this time, because some of the houses in Pompeii, especially the older, more lavish homes, are about 400 years old when they’re destroyed.
Katie: And a lot of them had modern conveniences, which might be surprising. Rooms were heated by hot air running through cavities in the walls, and there were spaces under the floors and hydraulic pumps that gave running water.
Sara: And we also get some nice touches of the not quite so luxurious life. There are little inns catering to lower class clientele. There’s graffiti written on a lot of the houses.
Katie: I love the graffiti.
Sara: The graffiti is awesome. I read one thing that read the largely windowless fronts of the houses were like the perfect temptation for graffiti on the streets. But there was all kinds of stuff, little “so and so loves so and so” and a debate between which is better, blondes or brunettes. And even gladiatorial announcements, which one was calling Silidus the Thoreation the ladies choice.
Katie: Well, well, Silidus. It’s just really cool because most of that stuff doesn’t last. When you’re an archeologist you don’t often get to see graffiti from the Roman Empire.
Sara: Yeah, but it kind of humanizes the people who lived there.
Katie: And gives you an idea of daily life, which is interesting to people like us. How did people live in 79 A.D.? Now we know.
Sara: So all of this – maybe not so much the Pompeian graffiti – but the fancy houses, the frescos, the mosaics, all of this really influences European taste, much like later archeological excavations in Egypt would. Neoclassical revival kind of comes up, replaces the fali recoco. We even have Marie Antoinette getting her fonte bleu apartment decorated in a Pompeian style.
Katie: And it became part of the quintessential grand tour to go and see Pompeii when you were doing your little European trip. And Vesuvius today is actually still a problem, which we didn’t know.
Sara: You might want to think before you make it part of your grand tour today.
Katie: Or if you’re thinking of moving to Naples, maybe don’t. So Vesuvius is a strato-volcano. It’s tall and it’s mountainous and it’s also on the edge of the Eurasian plate, which collides with the Africa plate quite often.
Sara: And the last enormous Plinain eruption – not quite the size of Pompeii – but the last sizeable eruption was in 1631. And after that there were a few centuries worth of lava streams and just little bits of activity. And the last relatively small eruption was in 1944. But this is kind of the scary part. For the past 25,000 years – and they know this from geological records – Vesuvius has had these catastrophic Plinian eruptions on a scale of Pompeii nearly every 2,000 years. Pompeii was the last major eruption, 80, 79, which – Katie and I were calculating this.
Katie: That’s about 2,000 years ago.
Sara: And three million people live in Naples today, and if evacuation was a problem in 80, 79 Pompeii, I can’t imagine –
Katie: What it would be like now.
Sara: The scale that would be today. They have drills and emergency procedures in place, and obviously our geology knowledge is a lot more extensive. And hopefully we’d be able to get a sizeable warning. But it’s still a rather unsettling thought.
Katie: Something to think about. Vesuvius is monitored around the clock by geologists, but it’s still a little scary to think of a modern Pompeii. So don’t’ be the house with cat hair if you are –
Sara: Get your mushrooms off the ceiling before it’s preserved in time.
Katie: So if you’d like to learn more about volcanoes and ancient history, head over to our homepage and check out the blog while you’re at it at www.howstuffworks.com.Announcer: For more on this, and thousands of other topics, visit HowStuffWorks.com. Let us know what you think. Send an email to podcast@howstuffworks.com and be sure to check out The Stuff You Missed in History Class blog on the How Stuff Works homepage.
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Topics in this Podcast: Ancient History
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Bizzarrini GT Strada 5300

That the Bizzarrini GT Strada 5300 should bear a close resemblance to the Bizzarrini-designed Iso Grifo, therefore, should hardly come as a surprise. In the early 1960s, the name of Giotto Bizzarrini seemed to crop up all over the Italian supercar industry, the engineer being involved with Ferrari, Lamborghini, Iso and his own little carmaking concern in the space of just a few short years.
Bizzarrini was one of Ferrari¡¯s most respected engineers in the late 1950s/early 1960s. When chief engineer Carlo Chiti and several other experienced hands left the Maranello company, Bizzarrini did too, trucking off to Livorno to work freelance. Soon afterward, he was commissioned by Ferruccio Lamborghini¡¯s fledgling firm to design a Ferrari-like V-12 and hired to lay out a new chassis for Iso of Milan.
This chassis was the true ancestor of the Bizzarrini GT¡¯s. Typical of period Italian practice, it was a fabricated pressed-steel platform to which was attached an all-independent coil-spring suspension with De Dion rear geometry. Power was provided by a 327-cubic-inch Chevrolet Corvette V-8 tuned for 300 or 365 horsepower (SAE). Iso¡¯s first Bizzarrini-designed chassis was unveiled with the Rivolta coupe in 1962.
At the same time, Bizzarrini was working on a short-wheelbase version of this chassis that ultimately formed the basis for his GT Strada 5300. The same basic platform with four-barrel 365-bhp Corvette power was also slated for Iso¡¯s forthcoming Grifo A3L, a two-seat derivative of the four-place Rivolta

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Both cars were unveiled in prototype form at the Turin Motor Show of November 1963, with the future Bizzarrini titled Iso A3C ¡°competition coupe.¡± Though the A3C and A3L had clearly been styled by the same hands — those of Giorgetto Giugiaro at Bertone — they were completely different in detail.
Confused? It gets better. Badged as an Iso, the future Bizzarrini appeared at the 1964 Le Mans 24 Hours, finishing 14th at an average 106.75 mph. This racer carried an aluminum body with headlamps recessed behind sloping plastic covers, and a grille composed of two wide slots. Wheels were cast alloy, and engine cooling vents appeared on the flanks immediately behind the front wheelarches.
Meantime, the Grifo went on sale with the same general Bertone lines and similar front-fender exhaust grids, only its body was made of steel, had exposed headlamps and a less radical nose, and sported a more luxuriously trimmed interior. Everyone noticed the obvious relationship between the two cars, but the ¡°competition coupe¡± was now offered as a limited-edition road car with a new Bizzarrini badge, and no one, least of all Iso, seemed to mind.
Bizzarrini¡¯s tiny premises couldn¡¯t build more than a few cars at a time, so the ¡°production¡± GT Strada 5300 (the name means ¡°road¡± in Italian, the number represents the Corvette engine¡¯s cubic-centimeter displacement) was strictly a hand-assembled affair. Rolling chassis came from Iso, while the Bertone-styled body was built by BBM in Modena. Bizzarrini simply put them together.
The result was a low-slung high-performer with vivid acceleration and a 145-mph top speed. Fuel ¡°economy¡± was only 12 miles per U.S. gallon, a definite drawback in Europe with its less-available, higher-priced gasoline. Then again, this was the sort of car likely to be bought only by rich poseurs, so who cared?
It¡¯s not clear how many of these cars were actually completed, though the figure of 149 quoted by one source seems rather high. What is clear is that very few survive. In any case, Bizzarrini himself quickly lost interest in this project and turned his attention to the smaller GT Europa 1900, an equally rare but more humble machine powered by a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine from Opel of Germany.

1937 Packard 1507 Dietrich Convertible Victoria

Packard debuted its Fifteenth Series models in September 1936, including the 1937 Packard 1507 Dietrich Convertible Victoria. Dealers were delighted, as was the American public, for there was much that was new.
Classic Cars Image Gallery
At the bottom of the line, Packard introduced its first Six since 1928. Selling for as little as $795, it made it possible for more people than ever to realize their dream of someday owning a Packard.
At the top of the line, the Twelve (and Super Eight) sported independent front suspension and hydraulic brakes, both standard features on the One Twenty since 1935.
No matter, the Twelve was sold as an out-and-out luxury car, not for trendy engineering.
Packard boasted in the mid-Thirties that more than 1,000 families had driven Packards for 21 years or more. “Such a record — the greatest testimonial, we believe, ever accorded a fine motor car — could not have been created by salesmanship alone.”
Packard continued the theme in 1937, with an ad in the August issue of Fortune. “Socially — America’s First Motor Car,” read the headline above a painting of a Packard embarking for the International America’s Cup race. “At those sporting events which attract America’s first families, you will see more people who own and drive large Packards than any other fine car. This is a vivid illustration of Packard’s dominance of the fine car field — a dominance which accounts for nearly half of all the large fine cars sold in America today.”
Packard’s 1507 series Twelves rode a long 139-inch wheelbase. Power came from a 473-cubic-inch V-12, which churned out 175 horsepower, fully 25 more than the V-12 from Cadillac. But power wasn’t the point: “There is a deeper significance in the quiet of the Packard Twelve motor than mere solace to your ears. Such quiet is a reflection of standards so precise as to be almost incredible.”
The Packard Twelve seen here went the factory one better, for it’s a Convertible Victoria by Dietrich. Delivered on April 3, 1937, by Eastman Motors, Inc. of Norwalk

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, Connecticut, this Regatta Blue Twelve was restored in 1979. It went on to take a first in class at Pebble Beach that year and has won numerous awards since.
Backing up Packard’s claims, Americans of means snapped up 1,300 Twelves in 1937, a record for the decade and smartly ahead of Cadillac’s output of 474 V-12s. Total output that year hit 122,593 units, Packard’s all-time best.
Truly, if you “asked the man who owned one” in 1937, you too would have chosen a Packard Twelve.

5 Iconic Cosmetics

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1953 Kaiser "Hardtop" Dragon

No Dragons were built for 1952, but the following year the luxury 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon appeared, with a unique interior by designer Carleton Spencer, now a separate model. It featured 14-carat gold-plated hood ornament, exterior emblem, fender script, and glovebox nameplate.
Cars of the 1950s Image Gallery

Production of the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon: 1,277 Specifications of the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon: Wheelbase, inches: 118.5 Length, inches: 211.1 Weight, pounds: 3,320 Price, new: $3,924 (U.S.) Engines for the 1953 Kaiser ¡°Hardtop¡± Dragon:

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How Land Trusts Work

From the moment Walt Disney opened his Disneyland resort in Anaheim, Calif., in July 1955 it was a soaring success. By the 1960s, Disney was looking for a second location to build an even more ambitious theme park that would draw visitors from the length of the populous East Coast. On an airplane tour over Central Florida, Disney set his sights on 27,000 acres (11,000 hectares) of swampland near the sleepy town of Orlando.
In 1965, real estate in this waterlogged stretch of Florida was selling for $180 an acre, roughly $1,300 in 2013 dollars [source: History]. But imagine how much that price would have spiked if Walt Disney, one of the wealthiest and most successful men in the world at the time, came knocking at the door. To avoid a speculative boom in real estate prices, Disney decided to hide his identity by purchasing the land through several trusts.
A land trust is a private legal contract in which the owner of real estate transfers the title of the property to a trustee. The property owner retains all rights to the property ¡ª to build, rent, sell or transfer to heirs ¡ª but has the luxury of remaining anonymous. In Disney’s case, the Florida swampland that would become the multibillion-dollar empire of Walt Disney World was purchased by nameless, faceless trusts [source: Disney Park History].
Land trusts of this type are called “Illinois Land Trusts,” because the first such contracts were drawn up by railroad tycoons, businessmen and politicians in 19th-century Chicago. Some of the early beneficiaries were people wanting to buy up Chicago real estate without jeopardizing their political posts as city aldermen, since they were not allowed to vote on city building projects if they owned any nearby lands [source: Exeter]

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These anonymous land trusts met opposition, but were eventually upheld by the Illinois State Supreme Court. In addition to Illinois, only eight other U.S. states ¡ª Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, North Dakota, Virginia, Arizona

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1956-1966 Ferrari Superamerica and Superfast

The 1956-1966 Ferrari Superamerica and Superfast have been referred to as “the ultimate street Ferraris” by automotive historian Richard M. Langworth, who described them as “monstrously powerful and blindingly fast.” These legendary cars are highly prized today.
The final model of the series, the 500 Superfast, has been called the “Ferrari ‘Royale’ ” by Ferrari expert and author Antoine Prunet, who is of course referring to the huge and grand Bugatti Royale.
These large and luxurious (at least by Ferrari standards) Ferraris became legendary in their own time, but it’s doubtful that Enzo Ferrari would have built them had certain circumstances not come together, among them a perceived need for a Ferrari for American driving conditions and a desire to expand the line.
Most car companies — even the builders of limited-production high-performance cars — broaden their model bases when possible to cover as much of the market as considered desirable by management. Different philosophies emerge, with some companies seeming to think in broader terms than others. Consider the fairly wide views of Porsche, BMW, and Mercedes-Benz compared to the narrower approaches of Aston Martin and Lamborghini.
Considering its size, Ferrari built an amazing variety of model types in the early 1950s, with engines that ranged in size and configuration from a 4.5-liter V-12 to a 2.0-liter four. It offered a number of cars with Gioacchino Colombo-designed V-12 engines — the 2.0-liter 166, the 2.3-liter 195, the 2

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.6-liter 212, and the 3.0-liter 250.
Aurelio Lampredi-designed V-12s powered the 250, the 4.0 Miter 340, the 4.1-liter 342 (25 cc more displacement than the 340), and the 4.5-liter 375. Concurrently, Lampredi-designed engines could be found in the 500 (2.0-liter four), the 625 (2.5-liter four), the 750 (3.0-liter four), the 860 (3.5-liter four), the 118 (3.75-liter six), and the 121 (4.4-liter six).
The majority of Ferrari’s cars in the early 1950s were competition machines, but Luigi Chinetti, Ferrari distributor for the United States, had been trying to convince Enzo Ferrari to build a road car with a bigger engine — one that would appeal to American buyers.
In those days, drivers of Chrysler hemis and Oldsmobile 88 Rockets reigned as kings of the American road, at least in standing start acceleration and in speed (over a straight road). Chinetti argued forcibly that while an MG owner might brag about handling, an easy-shifting four-speed manual transmission, and good brakes, someone who had just paid the far side of $12,000 for his sleek Italian steed couldn’t use that sort of rationalization after an American “barge” had just left him standing at a stop light.
To see how these discussions resulted in changes for the 1956 Ferrari, continue to the next page.
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