1920 Harley-Davidson 20-J

The 1920 Harley-Davidson 20-J sported the olive paint Harley switched to with its 1917 models. Styling changes were few during those years, the most notable occurring in 1920 when the headlight and horn switched places. V-twins still displaced the same 61 cubic inches (1,000-cc) as before, though a 74-cubic-inch (1,200-cc) model joined the line for 1921.
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Introduced in 1919 was the Sport, a 35.6 cubic-inch twin with horizontally opposed “fore and aft” cylinders. It was intended to compete with Indian’s highly successful V-twin Scout, but it failed to win over many customers and was dropped in 1923.
During this same period Harley-Davidson sponsored an extremely successful racing team, which become known as the “wrecking crew” for the way it demolished its opponents. Racing models were devoid of such luxuries as sprung seats and even brakes, and some boasted special overhead-valve engines with two or four valves per cylinder. The 1922 JD racer was fitted with a conventional F-head engine

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, and like most Harley competition bikes of the era, carried bolder tank lettering for promotional purposes.

How to Figure Out the Cost of Taxes on Your Car

So, let’s say that you’ve made the decision to ditch the clunker you’re driving and get a new (or new to you) vehicle. You’ve done the math and used the online payment calculators, and you know what you can afford. You’ve got your down payment ready, and you know how to haggle the price down to a number that won’t make your wallet burst into flames.
Oh, but wait! What’s this extra couple of thousand dollars on the final price? In addition to paying for tags and registration, you’ll also have to pay taxes on that new car. And depending on the state and local tax rates where you live

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, it can add a noticeable amount to your purchase price. The taxes can often be folded into your monthly payment, but you definitely don’t want to be surprised by them when it’s time to sign the paperwork.
Tax rates for vehicles can vary widely between states, and even by a few percentage points within a state

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. Sales tax usually starts with a state-wide figure that everyone pays. Some counties or municipalities add their own sales tax to the state tax, making it a little higher in some areas than others. There are also excise taxes on certain vehicles, like “gas guzzler” taxes for passenger cars that fall short of U.S. fuel economy standards. At times, the United States also imposes a “luxury tax” on cars with a higher than average purchase price.
Next, find out which taxes you can rely on paying at the time of purchase and how much these taxes might add to your final bill.

1962-1964 Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk

As part of the plan to keep Studebaker in the auto business, Sherwood Egbert called on Brooks Stevens to update the Hawk. With little time and less money, Stevens created the stunning Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk.
Classic Cars Image Gallery
An enraged Raymond Loewy rushed to a phone when he first saw the new Studebaker Gran Turismo Hawk at the 1961 Paris Auto Show. He couldn’t understand how Studebaker could have allowed Brooks Stevens to modify his firm’s 1953 Studebaker Starliner design so extensively. Fortune magazine had called it “one of the hundred best designs of modern times.” In his transatlantic call to South Bend, he demanded to know what had happened and how.
Studebaker executives, however, realized the wisdom of their decision and stood by Brooks Stevens’ new design. Loewy, busy with the Avanti project for Studebaker, dropped the matter.
Only infrequently has a face-lift not destroyed the purity of an original concept. Stevens’ heroic restyling of the Starliner is an example of the rare exception (“heroic” because Stevens accomplished the task on a shoestring budget and in very limited time). His 1962-1964 Gran Turismo Hawk emerged as a refreshing, timeless design that looks as good today as when it first debuted almost 50 years ago. And Stevens’ design took nothing away from the Starliner, for when parked side by side both cars still look “right.”
When Stevens was called to South Bend

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, Studebaker — the oldest vehicle manufacturer in the U.S. — was on the ropes. It had made wagons since before the Civil War, but now pressures were mounting, from within and without, to abandon automobile production. Some say Studebaker had been slowly dying ever since its brush with bankruptcy in the 1930s. But material production had brought in a lot of capital during World War II, and the future looked promising in 1946.
The challenges and opportunities were there. The problem was that management consistently took the wrong turn at every crossroad. In some ways, the company was ahead of its time, as with its late Forties and early Fifties association with Loewy. In other aspects, it seemed woefully out of date, especially in some areas of engineering.
Ford is generally given credit for creating the sporty “personal-luxury” market with the 1958 Thunderbird, or “Squarebird.” Its basic dimensions seem to have been borrowed from General Motors’ Autorama dream cars of the mid-Fifties, but GM didn’t enter this segment until Pontiac fielded the 1962 Grand Prix — or mid-1961, when Olds debuted the Starfire.
In fact, Studebaker beat both Ford and GM to market in 1956 with the sporty

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, well-trimmed Hawk. Although really a makeover of the 1953 Starliner, the Hawk was both a good performer and a good looker, particularly the top-of-the-line Golden Hawk.
Studebaker called it “a sports car…that restores the fun and excitement to luxury motoring.” Only later did others invade that market niche — 1958 T-Bird, 1963 Riviera, 1966 Olds Toronado, 1967 Cadillac Eldorado, and others — but Studebaker could lay claim to being the first of this lineage.
Studebaker was in financial trouble as the Hawk was being developed. Learn how Egbert kept the ball rolling during difficult times on the next page.
For more information on cars, see:

Buick Muscle Cars

Despite respected Buick muscle cars such as the GS 400 and mighty GSX, the “gentleman’s car” division of General Motors was an unlikely source of high performance in the 1960s and early ’70s.
Buick’s traditional market position put it a step below Cadillac on GM’s prestige scale. Buicks were dignified, often described as “doctors’ cars.” When the marque finally got around to producing genuine muscle cars, it’s little surprise they were among the most luxurious of the breed. Buick’s entry into the muscle car market came in 1965, in the wake of the wild success of the Pontiac GTO.
Muscle Car Image Gallery
Buick had offered Gran Sport options for the Riviera and the Wildcat; these were touted as “manly” luxury cars, not hot muscle machines. That approached changed midway through the ’65 model year with introduction of the Gran Sport version of Buick’s Skylark, which shared its basic design with the Tempest that Pontiac used for the basis of the GTO.
The Skylark GS used a 325-bhp version of Buick’s 401-cid “nailhead” V-8 (advertised at 400 cid to stay within GM’s 400-cid ceiling in intermediate-size cars). Along with the big V-8, the GS package included a heavy-duty suspension, oversize 14-inch tires on attractive road wheels, dual exhaust, optional performance axle ratios, and assorted Gran Sport emblems. The 401 continued for 1966 and then was replaced for ’67 by a new, thinwall-cast 400-cid V-8 rated at 340 bhp.
Shadowing the GS 400 was Buick’s low-priced junior muscle car, the GS 340. Rated at 260 bhp, the 340 didn’t exactly send Hemi Road Runner drivers fleeing, but along with the later 280-bhp GS 350 models, did provide Buick performance for those who couldn’t swing the price of the luxury-oriented GS 400.
In 1970, GM lifted the 400-cid V-8 limit in intermediate-size cars, and Buick responded with its quickest cars yet, and some of the mightiest muscle cars of the era.
A handsome new body style bowed in 1970 to go along with the Skylark’s new 455-cid V-8. Standard horsepower was a healthy 350, but a Stage 1 option for the GS made 360 thanks to a hotter cam and high-rpm valvetrain. Hot Rod magazine tested a 1970 Stage 1 GS 455 with the 3.64:1 axle ratio and recorded a 14.4-second quarter-mile time, impressive for a 3,900-pound car

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.
The real stud of the Buick corral also came in 1970, with the outlandish GSX version of the GS. It blew away Buick’s reserved look with a large rear deck spoiler, body-length stripes, and available Saturn Yellow paint. It blew away plenty of rivals, too. Armed with the standard 455 or the Stage 1 option, GSXs packed as much as 510 lb ft of torque, and car-magazine testers of the time regularly pulled down mid-13-second quarter-miles in these machines.
The Stage 1 option survived into the early 1970s in low-compression 270-bhp form, but the cars it served were far from true muscle machines. Buick would resurrect its midsize-car performance image in the mid-’80s with the Grand National and GNX, V-6 brawlers that did justice to their muscle- car ancestors.
For profiles, photos

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, and specifications of more Buick muscle cars, see:
Return to Muscle Car Information Library.
For photos, profiles, and specifications of the best Buick muscle cars, check out:

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The World’s Most Legendary Shindigs

Whether we’re talking about the decadent parties of the Ancient Greeks, the lavish costume balls of the Gilded Age or Paris Hilton’s $75

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,000-per-guest 21st birthday party, one thing’s for sure: The world’s been throwing legendary shindigs for ages. How much do you know about big bashes

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Family Vacations in Wisconsin

Gracefully skirting Lake Michigan and boasting more than just cheese, Wisconsin is a family vacation destination with a lot to offer. Steeped in rich Native American heritage, Wisconsin has many sleepy beach towns perfect for a relaxing break, as well as modern, big-city enjoyments for the whole family.
Learn more about some of the many Wisconsin vacation attractions below. From the wet-and-wild thrills of the famous Wisconsin Dells to the behind-the-scenes look at the Jelly Belly factory

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, Wisconsin is a prime vacation spot for young and old alike.
The Wisconsin Dells
The Wisconsin Dells, a nationally famous collection of nearly two dozen water parks, continue to lure families year after year. And while the area is considered “the water park capital of the world,” it also boasts majestic sandstone cliff tours, fine dining and luxury hotel accommodations. Add in some magic shows, museums, arcades and other “dry fun” attractions, and the Dells should find a spot on anyone’s itinerary year-round.
The Jelly Belly Factory Tour
The Jelly Belly Factory Tour allows visitors to get a behind-the-scenes look at the making of this popular candy. With tours of the factory floor, video presentations on the making of Jelly Belly beans, and a final stop at the taste-testing shop, this sweet vacation spot is a must-see (and must-taste) while visiting Wisconsin.
Door County
Door Country, the long, finger-shaped peninsula separating Lake Michigan from Green Bay, is known for its picturesque towns, relaxing beaches and scenic farmland. Rich with Scandinavian heritage and culture, this quiet vacation spot is perfect for the vacationing family looking to relax and take a break from the hustle and bustle of everyday life.
Lambeau Field
Lambeau Field is one of those magical stadiums where the game experience evokes a rich past. The history of the stadium begins with Vince Lombardi, head coach of the Packers from 1958 to 1967.
Captain Frederick Pabst Mansion
Pabst Mansion is called “the Finest Flemish Renaissance Revival Mansion in America.” With 37 rooms, 12 baths and 14 fireplaces, the mansion lives up to its name.
Taliesin
Taliesin, a National Historic Landmark, offers tours featuring many structures Frank Lloyd Wright built on the 600-acre estate: the Romeo and Juliet Windmill Tower, Hillside Home School, Tan-y-deri and Midway Barns.
Apostle Island National Lakeshore
A nature lovers paradise

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, the 21 islands of Apostle Islands National Lakeshore dot the coast of northern Wisconsin just off Bayfield Peninsula. Outdoor enthusiasts can enjoy everything from hiking to fishing and animal watching.
Milwaukee Art Museum
When you think of Milwaukee, beer, bratwurst and Milwaukee Brewers baseball come to mind. But while some weren’t looking, Milwaukee turned into a sophisticated city with an amazing, world-class art museum. See works by Degas, Homer, Monet, O’Keeffe, Picasso, Rodin, Toulouse-Latrec and Warhol.
Continue on to the next page to learn about the summertime thrills and year-round beauty of the scenic Wisconsin Dells.

You may be taking Valentine’s Day too seriously if …

What’s not to love about love? Isn’t it great to be loved — and to be in love? Aren’t you hoping for a diamond ring this Valentine’s Day, or maybe an exquisite meal with caviar and champagne

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? Valentine’s Day is the most romantic day of the year, so let your expectations soar, and soak in the romance and luxury until you burst with joy! We’re only joking. People get way too worked up about V-day. Have a little laugh at these 15 signs that you might be taking the holiday too seriously.

1962-1964 Dodge Polara 500

The start of the Sixties saw several new types of cars sprouting up in America as Detroit began fine-tuning its marketing. The 1962-1964 Dodge Polara 500 was one example. Aside from compacts, there were also “personal-luxury” cars and high-performance specials built to a formula that included V-8 engines, unique trim, and bucket seats. When Dodge mixed these ingredients, it cooked up the 1962-1964 Dodge Polara 500.
Classic Cars Image Gallery
Imagine you’re on some Survivor-type TV program, alone out on the vast Utah salt flats. It’s dark, desolate, and there’s a chill in the air

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. Out in the distance, three cars are quickly moving toward you, all with their low- and high-beam lights blazing. From among those 12 circles of light, your test is to distinguish the 1962 Dodge Polara 500 from the 1963 and 1964. How do you do it?
If you know your Polara 500s, it’s easy

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. The car with the inboard lamps higher than the outboards is the 1962; the car with the inboard lamps lower than the out-boards is the 1963; and the car with all lamps at the same height is the 1964. (Hey, you never know when this information will come in handy!)
The 1962 Polara 500 was Dodge’s first attempt at a personal-luxury car with performance overtones. As such, it was the product of many powerful forces at work in the late Fifties and early Sixties. Some — the introduction of smaller cars and the sudden demand for bucket seating — involved the entire American automobile industry. Others were peculiar to the Chrysler Corporation. A quick look is in order.
Despite all the fuzzy-dice fondness for the decade, the last few years of the Fifties were turbulent ones for the American automobile companies. After a record-breaking 8-million-car year in 1955 and a second-best 6-million-car year in 1957, the industry suffered with the rest of the American economy in a short, but deep, recession in 1958. Simultaneously, an unexpected slump in the medium-price car market eliminated Nash, Hudson, Packard, and DeSoto, and gutted Mercury. It turned the Edsel, Ford’s new medium-price entry planned in the halcyon days of 1955, into a marketing and financial fiasco.
Moreover, as sales of these high-profit cars were declining, the rising popularity of the Volkswagen Beetle and George Romney’s Rambler drove the Big Three to introduce new smaller “compact” cars in the fall of 1959, cars that yielded diminished profit margins. The car market was undergoing what we’d today call a “sea change.” All over Detroit, product planners were asking, “What kind of car should we build?” Big or small? V-8 or six-cylinder? Front-engine or rear? More chrome or less? It was a time of great uncertainty and, therefore, great risk.